Pokémon, Programs and Plants: 2016 in Review

Pokémon, Programs and Plants: 2016 in Review

Water is Life

marram erosion control

Marram Grass

2016 was a busy and challenging year at the dune restoration. Plants were planted, seeds were seeded. Weeds were weeded.  We survived being popular in Pokémon Go and gained many new friends.  We also gained a roped path.  A new fence was installed.  Two other strips of marram grass were planted and the fence was removed on all of the older strips. Over a hundred trees were planted in the park and we started to have Nature Center activities such as bird watching, nature walks and Oak-tober.

In the dune area alone, volunteers planted 500 little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) plugs and 500 butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa) plugs.  Little bluestem will, hopefully, over time out-compete some invasive species such as black medick and the cool-season grasses.  Butterfly weed is in the milkweed family and will provide food for many butterflies and hosting for the larvae of monarch (Danaus plexippus) and queen (Danaus gilippus) butterflies.  Butterfly weed will bloom in June or early July with long-lasting orange flowers. This will give a big splash of color at a time when not much else is blooming.  Other seeds were planted including nearly 100 prickly pear cactus (Opuntia humifusa).

pokemon-players

Photo Nikki Danielle

During the Pokémon Go craze, Pratt Beach (Tobey Prinz Beach Park) was, surprisingly, the most popular venue in Chicago.  The genesis of the popularity started before Pokémon Go. Niantic, the company that created Pokémon Go, had a previous geo-caching game called Ingress which was much less popular. Individuals could propose spots for the game.  Some Rogers Parkians proposed seven spots, all in the Pratt area.  One of them was called “Buddha Head” and was the location of the temporary art installation by Ten Thousand Ripples.  That art installation was removed a few years ago, but that location and six others were incorporated into the new game Pokémon Go. Two to three hundred people per night were visiting the pier and dune restoration area with different people coming all of the time. This small area started to suffer from too much love.  Many neighbors (maybe you!) kindly asked the players to stay on the paths, explaining that it was too much traffic for such a small space.  Some neighbors and players created a crew to clean up at the end of each evening.  In the end only political pressure by our State Representative, Kelly Cassidy, proved enough to get the one spot actually in the Dunes shut down.

There is now a new perimeter fence and a new roped path.  The roped path was triggered by the Pokémon Go players.  They had created so many informal “paths” that when asked to stay on the path, they responded that they were on one!  The Park District was very responsive and had the ropes added to narrow the “official” path (the path had increased to three times what it is now) immediately after they saw the need.  I find the roped path gives a different perspective.  When I am on it, the area seems bigger than before; it is an optical illusion I didn’t expect.  I expected it to seem smaller.

The perimeter fence was also in need of replacement. We had replaced the plastic ties several times. The fence was being buried in sand in some areas and was bent in ways that were hard to undo in others.  The Pokémon Go players were walking over it in spots because they could, it was that buried. The fence was completely replaced. It had been in service for over ten years.  Hopefully, after the next ten, there will be no need for a fence at all.

Two more areas of marram grass (Ammophila breviligulata) were planted.  One, in Loyola Park proper, makes the connection between the patch planted around the comfort station and the strip closest to the dune. It is on the west side of the sidewalk and covers the area where sand had blown into the park.  The other patch is at Helen Doria Beach at the Columbia Street street-end.  Invasive species were removed and the marram grass planted to make a nice entrance to the beach.  As has happened with previous plantings, the grass will naturalize, fill in and make a softer edge. The real point of these plantings though, is to keep the sand from moving into the park and/or up the street.

Over a hundred new trees have been planted in the park! It seems as if many of them are maples.  We will know more come spring. The trees were planted to replace the ones that came down in the storm in 2015 and the trees that have been killed due to the emerald ash borer.  The Park will be a very different looking place in a few years. There is some interest by volunteers to map all of the trees in the Park this spring.

We started nature programming.  It is all with volunteer help.  We had several beginning bird watching mornings, three nature walks and we culminated by hosting an event called Oak-tober to celebrate the black oaks that are at Leone Park.  This is all in addition to the dune tours held at each workday. We are working on establishing a nature center in Leone Park as the building is currently underused.

All in all, it was a very busy year.  The upcoming year should bring us more learning opportunities and the enjoyment of our natural world.

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Oh Dear, Deer!

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Photo by Christopher Jobson

 

As you can see from the photo, deer have visited the dune.  There isn’t a lot of research about deer in dunes, but there is some.  White tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, are common in dune areas on the oceans as well as all along the Great Lakes.  Some State Parks have even had hunts to cull the deer, although it is controversial.  Deer create both beneficial and damaging impacts to dunes.  The deer walking through cause no direct impact from trampling.  They may make small, narrow paths but these paths are much less damaging than human-made paths or human/deer shared paths.

The beneficial impacts come in a couple of ways.  Deer scat (droppings) provide appropriate fungi for pine trees.  It is a complicated world in which, according to research, pine seedlings don’t necessarily sprout in areas with the appropriate fungi that help them grow.  Many plants need fungi to help them gather or assimilate nutrients and pine trees are one of them.  Deer, by passing through and leaving their scat, distribute the fungi that aid pine trees.

Another way they are beneficial is by browsing.  Some plants–a common example would be lawn grass– do better if there is some cutting, whether by lawn mower or deer browse.  A small amount of pruning in this way can trigger a plant to more robust growth.  Deer have not been let in on the need for delicacy and browse on whatever they think tastes good.  This makes deer browse also the downside of deer visiting the dune area.  There just isn’t enough space for a resident deer without them eating everything in sight.

It is just as well that the deer was merely passing through.  But, where did it come from and where was it going?  Deer have been spotted in Loyola Park before (even by me).  They also have been found grazing in the courtyard of a condo building.  At the time the theory was that the deer travelled down the Metra tracks to Calvary Cemetery between Chicago and Evanston.  From there they may have walked down Sheridan Road in the middle of the night when there wasn’t any traffic.  This same theory could be true this time.  Those deer were removed, but where did this deer go?

An alternative thought is one I heard concerning moose.  In the course of my job I was informed that pregnant moose sometimes take a notion to go for a swim.  I kid you not.  This is a known phenomenon at Isle Royale National Park.  Since deer and moose are in the same family, perhaps our deer was pregnant and took a notion to swim, either from Evanston or on the return trip.  Because this deer was not seen, as far as I know, only the tracks as recorded in the photo.

My feelings are mixed.  My initial response was joy.  I was glad that life of whatever kind was returning to the dune, just as I was happy about nesting birds and rabbits.  Upon reflection, these feelings were tempered by relief that the deer had moved along as the space just isn’t large enough to host even one deer, since they would just do too much damage to the plant life, as they do in other natural areas with no natural predators.

Bibliography:

Dune Environment Influences on a Rare Great Lakes Thistle: An Investigation in Ottawa County Parks’ Rosy Mound Natural Area FYRES: Dunes Research Report #9 May 2014  Department of Geology, Geography and Environmental Studies Calvin College Grand Rapids, Michigan by Natasha Strydhorst, Carolina Angulo, Anna Camilleri, Ethan DeVries, and Anna Selles

Ectomycorrhizal ecology under primary succession on coastal sand dunes: interactions involving Pinus contorta, suilloid fungi and deer. Ashkannejhad S, Horton TR. USDA Forest Service, Plumas National Forest, 875 Mitchell Ave, Oroville, CA 95966, USA.

 

Winter Outcome 2015-2016

Dunes are functioning as they should.  Last year, our little area actually gained sand.  It is surprising because the Lake levels are higher than they had been and many other City beaches have been battered and badly eroded.  Look no further than the street-end beaches farther north in Rogers Park or the short stretch between Albion and Columbia for examples.  The dune restoration area was protected more as a function of the direction of the wind and the existence of the pier than anything else.

This year the wind has shifted and we have seen more storms come straight from the east than the northeast.  The northeast winds actually bring us sand and the pier and the plants help stop its movement and hold it in place.  The wind coming from the east does not bring in extra sand from the rest of the beach as nor’easters do, nor is sand caught by the pier.

What you see is that the shoreline is battered by waves and the sand is washed out, at least temporarily, into the Lake.  Where the dune grasses grow, the shoreline is protected.  As you can see in the photos, the grasses have held sand while sand has washed away all around them.  These grasses have roots that may go as far as 15 feet down.  They also spread laterally, or sideways, so that the sand is held by a network of interconnecting roots.  Where the roots don’t exist, the sand washes away.

The grasses can’t withstand everything; they are after all only plants.  Huge, prolonged wave action would eventually damage or destroy them.  They are, however, remarkably tough and can withstand strong storms such as those we have had this past winter, the strongest since Hurricane Sandy.

There are two grasses at play here.  One, the shorter of the two, is called Marram grass or American Sea Grass.  It is so often used to protect shorelines that on Cape Cod there are boardwalks built to go over the grass and huge fines for walking through it.  This grass and the dunes it builds are extremely important for protection against hurricanes there.  It is the same grass used in the erosion control project in Loyola Park, where it also does double-duty as protection from water erosion and not just wind erosion. Here is Marram grass thriving in Loyola Park.

marram erosion control

The second grass, called Sand Reed, has flower stalks as tall as eight feet. It is the grass you see in the following two photos.  It was seeded here about a dozen years ago.  The  photo below is the sand reed approximately ten years ago when the clump was just small.

A&P2299

The next photo is from this winter. The same clump is in the foreground a little to the left this time. Those dozen years have been crucial for developing the root network. Although the grass is dormant for the winter and pretty beat up by wind and waves, the roots continue to do their work.  Next year the grass will be no worse for wear and will grow new leaves and flower stalks with no memory of the storms. You can see that this grass is working to hold the beach in place just as we had envisioned several years ago and will continue to protect the beach, the park and the community for as long as it is there.

erosion 2015 cropped

 

At Long Last Signs

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Five years ago we requested signs.  The Chicago Park District set aside some money.  Alderman Joe Moore increased the money so we could have another sign.  Bureaucracy happened.  Staff came and went. Contractors changed.  But at long last, WE HAVE SIGNS!  It makes the dunes seem legitimate and not just a pile of weeds.  They explain about the migration.  They give a brief description of the history.  They identify some of the iconic plants for a dune habitat.  They highlight the work of volunteers that attend monthly workdays in order to remove invasive species.  The point out that 300+ species of birds migrate through Chicago and along the coast of Lake Michigan (It is the second longest flyway between the Appalachians and the Rockies- the Mississippi River is the longest).  Areas such as this offer resting, feeding and occasionally nesting for migrating birds. Snow buntings are due in next month and feast on the small seeds from the grasses.  The signs may keep flower pickers from denuding the area by making it seem official and not just waste land with some weeds.

There will still be a need for smaller signs to post the dates and times of work days and contacts for the work days.

Ducks This Winter

I’ve been following some of the birdwatching blogs this winter.  Initially I didn’t expect to see much activity, but not really knowing anything about birds, I thought I would look at the postings of a neighborhood birder.  To my surprise, and I think to the surprise of  birders (there are those who observe birds that don’t like the connotation of “silliness” that comes with the term birdwatching; see the things you can learn), there have been ample and interesting birds for the hardiest birders to observe.  Most of the birds present along the Lake are water birds, mostly ducks.  Most of those are what is called diving ducks.  These are ducks that get their food by thediving to the bottom.  There is another category of ducks called dabblers–a fine word,  but I am already taken by the colorful language used to classify the divers: Mergansers, Common and Red-breasted; Scoters, Back and White-winged; Scaups, Greater and Lesser; Common Goldeneye, Redhead, Bufflehead, Canvasback, Long-tail and Mallards. I could go on also about Gulls, but for the uninitiated it would be too much and for those of you who  are true birders, it is all pretty basic.  Suffice to say I am an enthusiast and a recent convert; there is nothing worse!  This winter these birds are showing up in the Chicago area because much of Lake Michigan has been iced-in.  The ice cover has forced the ducks to move farther south to find patches of open water.  Even at its iciest, Lake Michigan had open water out in the middle.  The middle is very deep and not suitable for diving ducks.  They have thus hugged our shore looking for small areas of open water and diving for fish and crustaceans, mostly mussels.  Continue reading

Ice, Ice, Baby

Lake Michigan is icing in.  It is at 69% ice cover now.  http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/res/glcfs/glcfs-ice.php?lake=m&type=N&hr=00

The entire Great Lakes are over 80% covered in ice.  The one Lake holding down the percentage is Lake Ontario, which reached 40% ice coverage but is back down to 18%.  The dynamics  have to do with air temperature, water temperature and depth, and how far north the Lake sits.  Lake Erie, the shallowest lake, iced over first.  It frequently ices over because of its shallowness.  The shallowness means that there is not a reserve of warmer water.  Lake Michigan, for example, still has forty degree water out in the middle.   The next Lake to ice over was Lake Superior followed by Lake Huron.  Lake Michigan, with its forty degree water in the center, is at 69%.  The ice cover has been increasing at about 10% per week.  Water temperature and depth aren’t the only issues.  Some of the ice is a thin skim.  Wind can move the ice and open up water, depending on the ice thickness, and pile up the ice in ridges.  Bird watchers have been pleased when there is some open water because there are so many ducks hanging around as well as other water birds such as loons.

While birds need open water, everyone seems to agree that it is healthy for the Lake to freeze over now and again.  It allows any sediment to settle as there are no waves to churn up  the bottom.  The change in the water temperature will keep us cool into the summer.  The past several years  of  above average temperatures has meant residual heat was exhibited by higher water temperatures as well.  This winter may reset the water temperature, and the moderating affect from the Lake will be stronger next summer.  The longer the water stays cool, the more like it will be that next winter the Lake will have more ice cover.  It will provide some small protection against climate change.

The ice cover protects against evaporation and therefore helps to restore the Lake water levels.  Although not completely straight forward as noted in this study,

http://glisaclimate.org/media/GLISA_Lake_Evaporation.pdf

it is still a major influence.

Then there is the beauty of the ice.  Photographers and admirers are out every day, enchanted by the ever-changing formations.  The February light provides magnificent sunrises.  Those willing to brave the cold are  being rewarded by glorious sparkling ice visions.  It seems as if the dune restoration area and the Lake have become one, undulating out just to open water.  It is clear, between the drifts of snow  and the underlying drifts of sand, that these universal processes provide balm for the soul in all seasons.  Though winter seems the harshest, perhaps it is also the purest.

No sand berms this year

The Park District built no sand berms this year. The simple reason is that the people who knew how to run the machines, retired. In these budget constrained times, nobody was hired to replace them. Additionally, the snow fence was placed next to the sidewalk. The way snow fence works is that it creates drifts just downwind from it. That is why, in previous years, they put it in the middle of the beach. This year they followed the lead of the erosion control project and put the fence near the sidewalk. The results are big drifts on the sidewalk. All of the snow on the beach blew and didn’t stop til it hit the fence and then piled up on the other side. Better luck next year!

So, is snow a stand in for sand? Will the erosion control project pile more sand on the sidewalks? I think that it won’t. Although snow and sand both blow, sand is much heavier and slows down much faster. Someone did their thesis on how long it took a sand grain to stop, and it was 15 feet. That is the width of our erosion control strips.

Where there was some accumulation of sand in the newly planted areas, snow did slow down and not drift as much behind. Since not much new sand has collected, the snow fence is still the feature that is affecting snow deposition the most.

Future years will give us more information, and hopefully we will be proved right in our placement. In the meantime, walking is easier on the beach than the sidewalk.